Utilize Apache's mod_proxy configurations
^/blogs/ ^blogs/(.*) http://myblog.example.com/
Check It Out - The Ping Program
If you're using Microsoft Windows or a flavor of Unix and have a connection to the Internet, there is a handy program to see if a computer on the Internet is alive. It's called ping, probably after the sound made by older submarine sonar systems.1 If you are using Windows, start a command prompt window. If you're using a flavor of Unix, get to a command prompt. Type ping www.yahoo.com. The ping program will send a 'ping' (actually an ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo request message) to the named computer. The pinged computer will respond with a reply. The ping program will count the time expired until the reply comes back (if it does). Also, if you enter a domain name (i.e. www.yahoo.com) instead of an IP address, ping will resolve the domain name and display the computer's IP address. More on domain names and address resolution later.
Application Protocols Layer
Protocols specific to applications such as WWW, e-mail, FTP, etc.
Transmission Control Protocol Layer
TCP directs packets to a specific application on a computer using a port number.
Internet Protocol Layer
IP directs packets to a specific computer using an IP address.
Converts binary packet data to network signals and back.
(E.g. ethernet network card, modem for phone lines, etc.)
Check It Out - The Traceroute Program
If you're using Microsoft Windows or a flavor of Unix and have a connection to the Internet, here is another handy Internet program. This one is called traceroute and it shows the path your packets are taking to a given Internet destination. Like ping, you must use traceroute from a command prompt. In Windows, use tracert www.yahoo.com. From a Unix prompt, type traceroute www.yahoo.com. Like ping, you may also enter IP addresses instead of domain names. Traceroute will print out a list of all the routers, computers, and any other Internet entities that your packets must travel through to get to their destination.
Check It Out - Disable DNS in Windows
If you're using Windows 95/NT and access the Internet, you may view your DNS server(s) and even disable them.
If you use Dial-Up Networking:
Open your Dial-Up Networking window (which can be found in Windows Explorer under your CD-ROM drive and above Network Neighborhood). Right click on your Internet connection and click Properties. Near the bottom of the connection properties window press the TCP/IP Settings... button.
If you have a permanent connection to the Internet:
Right click on Network Neighborhood and click Properties. Click TCP/IP Properties. Select the DNS Configuration tab at the top.
You should now be looking at your DNS servers' IP addresses. Here you may disable DNS or set your DNS servers to 0.0.0.0. (Write down your DNS servers' IP addresses first. You will probably have to restart Windows as well.) Now enter an address into your web browser. The browser won't be able to resolve the domain name and you will probably get a nasty dialog box explaining that a DNS server couldn't be found. However, if you enter the corresponding IP address instead of the domain name, the browser will be able to retrieve the desired web page. (Use ping to get the IP address prior to disabling DNS.) Other Microsoft operating systems are similar.
Check It Out - Use Your Telnet Client to Retrieve a Web Page Using HTTP
Telnet is a remote terminal service used on the Internet. It's use has declined lately, but it is a very useful tool to study the Internet. In Windows find the default telnet program. It may be located in the Windows directory named telnet.exe. When opened, pull down the Terminal menu and select Preferences. In the preferences window, check Local Echo. (This is so you can see your HTTP request when you type it.) Now pull down the Connection menu and select Remote System. Enter www.google.com for the Host Name and 80 for the Port. (Web servers usually listen on port 80 by default.) Press Connect. Now type
GET / HTTP/1.0
and press Enter twice. This is a simple HTTP request to a web server for it's root page. You should see a web page flash by and then a dialog box should pop up to tell you the connection was lost. If you'd like to save the retrieved page, turn on logging in the Telnet program. You may then browse through the web page and see the HTML that was used to write it.
Check It Out - Well Known Internet Port Numbers
Listed below are the port numbers for some of the more commonly used Internet services.